Wednesday, February 24, 2016

Return to colliding atoms

[Handout at IAU XXV General Assembly July 13-26, 2003 Sydney, Australia 218 Symposia poster 488]

A successful attempt to use the ancient colliding elementary units to explain our observations is reported. The regular arrangements of plastic collision events provide the basis for the conservation or self-regeneration of photons and massive particles, bodies.
 The abundance of elements and isotopes follows from their locations on the shells, formed by the collision events: more regular collision path – more abundant element.
A new fundamental parameter is being proposed, the density of spontaneous collisions in the deep space. The variations of this parameter – due to the presence of massive bodies – is shown to result the effects described by the General Relativity. However, the conclusion follows that the supernovae events limit the possibility of mass concentration in a single system, and the galactic nuclei observations explained as “super-massive black holes” must be caused by systems of neutron stars instead. No black holes and there was no big bang, but the Hubble redshift is a result of the conservation energy, consumed by the background spontaneous collision field in exchange for conserving the collision system by rearrangement of spontaneous collisions into regular systems.
Last year in St. Petersburg I presented [1,2] that our basis, the field of existence could be considered a void space and a multitude of infinitely small and infinitely high speed elementary building units, first beginnings being in it or flying through it. Such an interpretation is equivalent to the pure existence, because there is no place where we could be able to define any of these elements, ever. Now we see a possibility of a higher level of existence, the existence with qualities: the high speed vectors may collide and the place of the collisions is describable, also the event of collision effects the direction of collided elementary building units, therefore any next expected collisions will be effected by the accomplished collision event itself.
If this interpretation of the basis is correct, then all the objects are nothing else but the progressions, chains of collision events. Two preceding collision events through the change of directions of the collided elementary building units may cause a collision and serve as means of self-support for the observable objects.

Regular collision pattern systems
The regular collision systems are spherical surface objects constructed by continuous collision path. The smallest collision path for the ability to self-sustain has to contain two collisions, which is identified with the photons. The direction change of colliding elements must show as an unwinding, energy loss of photons during progression [Hubble redshift]. The simplest collision path element distinguished by regularity is a hexagonal path in a plane. Tilting and rotating that plane from one collision  to the other through each one in the plane until it returns to the start gives a total number of collisions and a special shape of the spherical regular object, comparable to the observations. The special shape is like a sphere with two opposing hats cut off around 3/4 of the radius [Figure 1] and it explains the density transition layer of nuclei, observed. The number of elements in the shell is calculated as N = 6 + 5*4 = 26. The same regularity can be continued enclosing the hexagon in a twelve-sided polygon and rotate and tilt that plane the same way, through each position, - and so on with increasing by doubling the number of elements in the polygon in each consecutive shell.
Figure 1. Neutron or any Nuclei or large Nucleus-type object, Neutron Star “Side View”
A multi-layer shell structure could be represented by the total elements, including one central collision and the shells as above, with about the same distances between all the collisions. Such regular structure with closed s shells will contain N(s) elements, calculated as:
Assuming that the electron is the s=1 closed shell object and its rest-mass corresponds to the 27 collision events, calculated from equation (1), we obtain a tool which could be used to calculate the number of collision elements from the rest-mass of nuclei. – In [1] the 0.000020317768226 amu = 1 collision element was introduced. – Also, from this geometry of objects follows that a new property will arise at the shell six, because at that extent the initial hexagon could be inscribed between the centre and the outer layer, meaning that the collision pattern could expand on additional loops.
Comparing the neutron and proton masses to the electron’s rest-mass we find that these have a slightly larger number of collision elements then the closed sixth shell. Strangely enough, a quite regular number of elements is found in excess at the neutron, exactly 208 hexagons or 13 chains of 96 elements, or the polygon of the fifth shell, the one below the surface. The proton reveals even more: it has 6 chains of 192 collisions – or 192 hexagons – plus 27 elements. The nucleus with a unit of charge shows the number of elements in an electron as excess collisions… The same is repeated at the closing of the next shell. The alpha particle or Helium-4 nucleus has 5 chains of 384 collisions (shell seventh polygon) and 51 elements are missing. The extras over eq. (1) for all shell closings could be represented as
The remaining after the chains elements D are associated with the charge of the nuclei (+27 for Hydrogen 1 and – 51 for Helium 4). The decreasing number of chains with the increase of shells indicates that the twelfth shell could not exist. In fact, the tenth shell does not have a stable closing element since we find that the closing nuclei of shells has the following masses:
(Which are: 1, 4, 16, 64 and ?256?)      (3)
The closing elements of shells are the most abundant elements of Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, also the closing nuclei of the Iron peak, a high mountain in the abundances are the Nickel 64 and Zinc 64. We already must agree that this is a promising representation. In [1, 2] in detail shown the correlation to the abundance of isotopes. More regular the collision system – more abundant are the nuclei. In St. Petersburg I was able to represent on the same basis the gravitational deformation of 'space-time frame’ – in reality the increase of density of spontaneous collision events due to the direction change of colliding elements in the mass-forming collisions – and the following from the same process Hubble redshift. Also I introduced a fit to the observed neutron star masses and radiuses in the form of Daisy-petal graph, which is repeated here.

Considering the virtual mass density at the surface of a nuclear type object, modified by the mass present we get an equation defining the mass and radius of such objects (neutron stars):
If we use in equation (4) zero for the gravitational redshift we get the correlation describing the mass and radius of nuclei of stabile isotopes of the regular chemical elements. The 221,164 multiplier is the ratio of nuclear density and the spontaneous collision density of “empty” space, at the boundary of the nucleus – in our case of neutron star – and the 3.65625 multiplier represents the truncated at about 75% of radius quasi-spherical volume.
The spontaneous collision density far from the massive bodies, in ‘empty’ space was defined in [1] and the gravitational redshift is well defined, based on the GR and experiments:
 ,                                     (5)
I also repeated the calculation to solve equation (4) in a spread-sheet and here are the results.
Rearranging the equation (4) for X = Square root of (M/R) and R separate variables makes the solution trivial. The range of possible values of X was divided on 100 for the spreadsheet solution, while the earlier program used input-defined fine steps (1000, or even 10,000).
What shall be concluded based on the basis of mass and radius graph of large mass nucleus type objects built from collision chain shells? It corresponds to our observations: there is a well-defined range of mass and radius where all massive nuclei – neutron stars - will fall. This range is under the maximum of mass, on the right side from this maximum, between the maximum radius and maximum mass, but on the lower part of the Daisy-petal curve, around 1.4 to 3 solar masses and around 15-18 km radius. Just about right, where we found the majority of neutron stars is under the peak of mass, around 1.4 solar masses and 15 km radius.
The proposed fine shell structure is built from polygons with sides of n=3*2i and the first regular stabile object was found at the shell number calculated from the same formula with I=1, or at the shell number six. Considering the found limitation for the nuclear type objects around 6 solar masses it is reasonable to expect the same formula to result in a series of regular shell numbers where the nuclear type objects are expected to exist, between the chemical elements and the maximum possible mass neutron star. The resulting shell numbers are 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 for the start of the series. We saw at the chemical elements – starting at shell 6 – that almost four shells – up to the ¾ of shell number 10 – produced the known elements. It makes understandable that the about 2.54e27 kg mass for the 96 shells neutron star and star core nucleus is just the smallest possible mass in the series, and the same series extends to the 6 solar masses largest possible mass neutron star. It just six shells more, or at the shell number 102, because the mass increases four fold from shell to the next shell, and we already saw at the chemical elements that the series extended on almost four shells.
The increased density of collisions inside the stars and planets makes it necessary to consider the generation of additional collision path systems or their parts, increase of mass of the cores of stars and planets. The stars are known of intense energy radiation rates and our Sun shows remarkable stability despite that. There is evidence that the Sun shines the same way for billions of years, losing 4.4e9 kg/s just for the radiated photons! This observed stability necessitates the generation of the mass inside the Sun, which our collision model predicted. The supernovae explosions are caused by the overgrow of the core nuclide – 96 shells series nuclear-type object – of a star and subsequent sudden separation and intense decay of 48, 24 and 12 shells series of super-heavy nuclei layers forms the spectacular planetary nebulae.
The triggering event is shown by the Daisy-petal shaped curve of neutron star mass and radius. After the mass of the core neutron star reaches 4.2 solar masses (shell 101-102) the radius decreases with mass increase. The further grows of core nucleus causes a separation of the 48 shells series layer of elements from the single nucleus core element. It in turn causes a decrease in the collision density in the boundary layer, triggering a drop of core nucleus’ mass onto the lower part of the curve with an intense g-ray burst, amounting to about 4.5 solar masses total mass loss of the core nucleus, including fission and particle emissions. The radiation pressure further pushes away the already separating and decaying layers, blowing them away. The intense reduction of collision density intensifies the decay, causing the observed radiation intensity curves of Supernovae. Even the shapes of Supernova Remnants (SNR) copy the initial nuclear shape, for the demonstration of which here is the Cat’s Eye nebula.

The process of the transition from the heavy nucleus of a massive star to a neutron star is an explosive one; it releases in the form of photons intensive radiation and particle flux, a mass-equivalent up to about four and a half Sun’s. At the same time, the gravitational mass of the central object – nucleus – drops down about four times, disturbing the gravitational equilibrium of the system. These two components are only from the predicted by the shape of the Daisy-petal graph mass-drop of the nucleus itself and we have to consider the decay of other super-heavy nuclei series in the surrounding the nucleus layers, contributing to the motion of the layers with jet effects. The explanation of the long term intense shining of supernovae remnants will employ the 48 shells and smaller super-heavy nuclei group’s decay, but the initial event itself could be explained by the transition of central nucleus, seen on the Daisy-petal graphs.
Neutron Star Properties
We demonstrated that the return to the colliding atoms representation resulted in an exact correlation between the mass and radius of large nuclear type objects, which corresponds to the observed neutron star radius and mass characteristics. It means that on the surface of a neutron star there are no ordinary chemical elements, but from the gaseous atmosphere around the neutron star there is a direct transition to the nuclear density material, like in the nuclei of atoms. The two flat features on the surface must result in different radiating properties – naturally, the radiation is nuclear type, g-ray and particle (mostly neutron) decay; and we should see two beacons – like as how we see the pulsars. Also, we should see sudden g-ray bursts when massive amount of matter falls on the surface or at the transition of the entire neutron star mass into a lower regularity order nuclear material. There could be decay transitions of loosing the outer 102-nd through 97-th partial layers, radioactive decay type or even fission type transitions, and finally – from 96 shell series to 48 shell series and down to the series of six shells chemical elements, eventually. All these processes are predicted to be similar to the radioactive isotope decay of chemical elements. A recycling down to planets, through all kind of stellar phases is predicted, or the neutron stars could form systems on a spherical shell as well. Pairs of neutron stars already reported, and we can see the galactic nuclei as millions of neutron stars on a close packed spherical shell.
Furthermore: we can even calculate the shortest possible periods of pulsars from the consideration of rotation of the surface chains of collisions with the local speed of light. Indeed it will be the possible theoretical shortest period and the actual periods must be several (hundred) times longer, because we assume a limited to one plane rotation, but the comparison to the observations may reveal some new regularities.  The local speed of light is   using for the calculation of gravitational redshift the radius of the neutron star, and the period is calculated from the length of a circular path with R radius, divided by this local speed of light.
This graph shows the range of the gravitational redshift, including the traditional erratic so-called GR redshift for the normal radius and for the seen on the Figure 1 flat feature. The yellow line is from GR and the blue line shows the flat surface center area gravitational redshift. It could be viewed as prediction. If the redshift radius relation would fall on the yellow line or values above the z=0.6 would show-up it would falsify my representation; on the other hand if a rotating neutron star turns the flats toward us time to time we should be able to detect the variations in the redshift of characteristic spectral features and compare with the predictions, here. A max. radius neutron star would vary the redshift between 0.3 and 0.4, for example.  (Indeed the Doppler from the rotation is superimposed on gravitational redshift.)
We can represent on the same basis the gravitational deformation of 'space-time frame’ – in reality the increase of density of spontaneous collision events due to the direction change of colliding elements in the mass-forming collisions. The general theory of relativity predicted space-time frame deformation of the field can be represented as the increase of density of spontaneous collisions.
A gravitational pull force could be expressed between m1 larger mass body and m2 smaller mass orbiting the larger at r distance with v2 tangential velocity body:
Three large mass neutron star samples (‘normal’, max mass and max radius) of changing fundamental parameters in the space surrounding the neutron star, and pull force for a small body with insignificant orbital velocity are shown on the following graphs:

Figure Hiba! A könyvjelző nem létezik.. Graphs of ‘space-time frame’ deformations
The decrease of pull force near the surface of the large core nucleus/neutron star is indicative of the triggering of supernovae. The distance of the closest to the core layer has to increase due to the pull force decrease at the time when the core approaches its maximum mass and the radius decreases with the increase of mass. It lowers the collision density near the surface of the core causing the sudden decay to the lower part of the Daisy-petal graph. It also must have a key role in organizing the neutron star systems: when two neutron stars approach each other too close, the pull force decreases, forcing them to find an equilibrium distance somewhat further away from each other.
The Daisy-petal graph itself shows a limitation of compact massive bodies mass at six solar masses. We have observations of the galactic centers, indicating million times as large compact massive bodies. However the pull force decrease for maximum mass neutron stars shows a possibility of forming stabile neutron star systems. Very large, million member compact neutron star systems can form as spherical systems of neutron stars and show the properties of galactic centers, all of them including the AGN’s as well. 

It is shown here that the return to the ancient representation of colliding atoms correlate well with our observations of neutron stars. The variations of the density of spontaneous collisions in the deep space – due to the presence of massive bodies – is shown to result the effects described by the General Relativity. However, the conclusion follows that the supernovae events limit the possibility of mass concentration in a single system at about six solar masses, and the galactic nuclei observations explained as “super-massive black holes” must be caused by systems of neutron stars instead. No black holes and there was no big bang, but the Hubble redshift is a result of the conservation energy, consumed by the background spontaneous collision field in exchange for conserving the collision system by rearrangement of spontaneous collisions into regular systems. The brightest evidence are the supernovae events.
[1]           Return to colliding atoms, Aladar Stolmar 2002 Physics Congress
[2]           Super-heavy nuclei in the cores of planets and stars, Aladar Stolmar 2002 Physics Congress