[Handout at IAU XXV General Assembly
July 13-26, 2003 Sydney, Australia 218 Symposia poster 488]

*A successful attempt to use the ancient colliding elementary units to explain our observations is reported. The regular arrangements of plastic collision events provide the basis for the conservation or self-regeneration of photons and massive particles, bodies.*

*The abundance of elements and isotopes follows from their locations on the shells, formed by the collision events: more regular collision path – more abundant element.*

*A new fundamental parameter is being proposed, the density of spontaneous collisions in the deep space. The variations of this parameter – due to the presence of massive bodies – is shown to result the effects described by the General Relativity. However, the conclusion follows that the supernovae events limit the possibility of mass concentration in a single system, and the galactic nuclei observations explained as “super-massive black holes” must be caused by systems of neutron stars instead. No black holes and there was no big bang, but the Hubble redshift is a result of the conservation energy, consumed by the background spontaneous collision field in exchange for conserving the collision system by rearrangement of spontaneous collisions into regular systems.***Introduction**

Last year in St. Petersburg I
presented [1,2] that our basis, the field of existence could be considered a
void space and a multitude of infinitely small and infinitely high speed
elementary building units, first beginnings being in it or flying through it.
Such an interpretation is equivalent to the pure existence, because there is no
place where we could be able to define any of these elements, ever. Now we see
a possibility of a higher level of existence, the existence with qualities: the
high speed vectors may collide and the place of the collisions is describable,
also the event of collision effects the direction of collided elementary
building units, therefore any next expected collisions will be effected by the
accomplished collision event itself.

If this interpretation
of the basis is correct, then all the objects are nothing else but the
progressions, chains of collision events. Two preceding collision events
through the change of directions of the collided elementary
building units may cause a collision and serve as means of self-support for the
observable objects.

**Regular collision pattern systems**

The regular
collision systems are spherical surface objects constructed by continuous
collision path. The smallest collision path for the ability to self-sustain has
to contain two collisions, which is identified with the photons. The direction
change of colliding elements must show as an unwinding, energy loss of photons
during progression [Hubble redshift]. The simplest collision path element
distinguished by regularity is a hexagonal path in a plane. Tilting and
rotating that plane from one collision
to the other through each one in the plane until it returns to the start
gives a total number of collisions and a special shape of the spherical regular
object, comparable to the observations. The special shape is like a sphere with
two opposing hats cut off around 3/4 of the radius [Figure 1] and it explains the density transition
layer of nuclei, observed. The number of elements in the shell is
calculated as N = 6 + 5*4 = 26. The same regularity can be continued enclosing
the hexagon in a twelve-sided polygon and rotate and tilt that plane the same
way, through each position, - and so on with increasing by doubling the number of
elements in the polygon in each consecutive shell.

**Figure 1. Neutron or any Nuclei or large Nucleus-type object, Neutron Star “Side View”**

A multi-layer
shell structure could be represented by the total elements, including one
central collision and the shells as above, with about the same distances
between
all the collisions. Such regular structure with closed s
shells will contain N(s) elements, calculated as:

_{ }(1)

Assuming that
the electron is the s=1 closed shell object and its rest-mass corresponds to
the 27 collision events, calculated from equation (1), we obtain a tool which
could be used to calculate the number of collision elements from the rest-mass
of nuclei.
– In [1] the 0.000020317768226 amu = 1 collision element was introduced. – Also, from
this geometry of objects follows that a new property will arise at the shell
six, because at that extent the initial hexagon could be inscribed between the
centre and the outer layer, meaning that the collision pattern could expand on
additional loops.

Comparing the
neutron and proton masses to the electron’s rest-mass we find that these have a
slightly larger number of collision elements then the closed sixth shell. Strangely enough, a quite
regular number of elements is found in excess at the neutron, exactly 208 hexagons or 13 chains of 96
elements, or the polygon of the fifth shell, the one below the surface. The
proton reveals even more: it has 6 chains of 192 collisions – or 192 hexagons – plus 27
elements. The nucleus with a unit of charge shows the number of elements in an
electron as excess collisions… The same is repeated at the closing of the next
shell. The alpha particle or Helium-4 nucleus has 5 chains of 384 collisions
(shell seventh polygon) and 51 elements are missing. The extras over eq. (1) for all shell closings could be
represented as

_{ }(2)

The remaining
after the chains elements D are associated with the charge of the nuclei (+27 for Hydrogen 1 and – 51 for
Helium 4). The decreasing number of chains with the increase of
shells indicates that the twelfth shell could not exist. In fact, the tenth
shell does not have a stable closing element since we find that the closing
nuclei of shells has the following masses:

_{ }**(Which are: 1, 4, 16, 64 and ?256?)**(3)

The closing
elements of shells are the most abundant elements of Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen, also the closing
nuclei of the Iron peak, a high mountain in the abundances – are the Nickel 64 and
Zinc 64. We already must
agree that this is a promising representation. In [1, 2] in detail shown the
correlation to the abundance of isotopes. More regular the collision system –
more abundant are the nuclei. In St. Petersburg I was able to
represent on the same basis the gravitational deformation of 'space-time frame’
– in reality the increase of density of spontaneous collision
events due to the direction change of colliding elements in the mass-forming collisions – and the
following from the same process Hubble redshift. Also I introduced a fit to the
observed neutron star masses and radiuses in the form of Daisy-petal graph, which is repeated here.

Considering the
virtual mass density at the surface of a nuclear type object, modified by the mass present we get an
equation defining the mass and radius of such objects (neutron stars):

_{ }

_{ }(4)

If we use in equation (4) zero for
the gravitational redshift we get the correlation describing the mass and
radius of nuclei of stabile isotopes of the regular chemical elements. The
221,164 multiplier is the ratio of nuclear density and the spontaneous
collision density of “empty” space, at the boundary of the nucleus – in our
case of neutron star – and the 3.65625 multiplier represents the truncated at
about 75% of radius quasi-spherical volume.

The spontaneous collision density
far from the massive bodies, in ‘empty’ space was defined in [1] and the
gravitational redshift is well defined, based on the GR and experiments:

_{ }

_{ , }

_{ }

_{ }_{(5)}

_{I also repeated the calculation to solve equation (4) in a spread-sheet and here are the results.}

Rearranging the equation (4) for X =
Square root of (M/R) and R separate variables makes the solution trivial. The
range of possible values of X was divided on 100 for the spreadsheet solution,
while the earlier program used input-defined fine steps (1000, or even 10,000).

What shall be concluded based on the
basis of mass and radius graph of large mass nucleus type objects built from
collision chain shells? It corresponds to our observations: there is a
well-defined range of mass and radius where all massive nuclei – neutron stars
- will fall. This range is under the maximum of mass, on the right side from
this maximum, between the maximum radius and maximum mass, but on the lower
part of the Daisy-petal curve, around 1.4 to 3 solar masses and around 15-18 km
radius. Just about right, where we found the majority of neutron stars is under
the peak of mass, around 1.4 solar masses and 15 km radius.

The proposed fine shell
structure is built from polygons with sides of n=3*2

^{i}and the first regular stabile object was found at the shell number calculated from the same formula with I=1, or at the shell number six. Considering the found limitation for the nuclear type objects around 6 solar masses it is reasonable to expect the same formula to result in a series of regular shell numbers where the nuclear type objects are expected to exist, between the chemical elements and the maximum possible mass neutron star. The resulting shell numbers are 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 for the start of the series. We saw at the chemical elements – starting at shell 6 – that almost four shells – up to the ¾ of shell number 10 – produced the known elements. It makes understandable that the about 2.54e27 kg mass for the 96 shells neutron star and star core nucleus is just the smallest possible mass in the series, and the same series extends to the 6 solar masses largest possible mass neutron star. It just six shells more, or at the shell number 102, because the mass increases four fold from shell to the next shell, and we already saw at the chemical elements that the series extended on almost four shells.
The increased
density of collisions inside the stars and planets makes it necessary to
consider the generation of additional collision path systems or their parts,
increase of mass of the cores of stars and planets. The stars are known of
intense energy radiation rates and our Sun shows remarkable stability despite
that. There is evidence that the Sun shines the same way for billions of years,
losing 4.4e9 kg/s just for the radiated photons! This observed stability
necessitates the generation of the mass inside the Sun, which our collision
model predicted.
The supernovae explosions are caused by the overgrow of
the core nuclide
– 96 shells series nuclear-type object – of a star and
subsequent sudden separation and intense decay of 48, 24 and 12 shells series
of super-heavy nuclei layers forms the spectacular planetary nebulae.

The triggering
event is shown by the Daisy-petal shaped curve of neutron
star mass and radius.
After the mass of the core neutron star reaches 4.2 solar
masses (shell 101-102) the radius decreases with mass increase. The further
grows of core nucleus causes a separation of the 48 shells series layer of
elements from the single nucleus core element. It in turn causes a decrease in
the collision density in the boundary layer, triggering a drop of core nucleus’ mass onto the lower part of the curve with an
intense g-ray burst, amounting to about 4.5 solar masses total mass loss of the core
nucleus, including fission and particle emissions. The radiation
pressure further pushes away the already separating and decaying layers,
blowing them away. The intense reduction of collision density intensifies the
decay, causing the observed radiation intensity curves of Supernovae. Even the
shapes of
Supernova Remnants (SNR) copy the initial nuclear shape, for the demonstration of which here is
the Cat’s Eye nebula.

The process of the transition from
the heavy nucleus of a massive star to a neutron star is an explosive one; it
releases in the form of photons intensive radiation and particle flux, a
mass-equivalent up to about four and a half Sun’s. At the same time, the
gravitational mass of the central object – nucleus – drops down about four
times, disturbing the gravitational equilibrium of the system. These two
components are only from the predicted by the shape of the Daisy-petal graph
mass-drop of the nucleus itself and we have to consider the decay of other
super-heavy nuclei series in the surrounding the nucleus layers, contributing
to the motion of the layers with jet effects. The explanation of the long term
intense shining of supernovae remnants will employ the 48 shells and smaller
super-heavy nuclei group’s decay, but the initial event itself could be explained
by the transition of central nucleus, seen on the Daisy-petal graphs.

**Neutron Star Properties**

We demonstrated that the return to
the colliding atoms representation resulted in an exact correlation between the
mass and radius of large nuclear type objects, which corresponds to the
observed neutron star radius and mass characteristics. It means that on the
surface of a neutron star there are no ordinary chemical elements, but from the
gaseous atmosphere around the neutron star there is a direct transition to the
nuclear density material, like in the nuclei of atoms. The two flat features on
the surface must result in different radiating properties – naturally, the
radiation is nuclear type, g-ray and particle (mostly neutron)
decay; and we should see two beacons – like as how we see the pulsars. Also, we
should see sudden g-ray bursts when massive amount of
matter falls on the surface or at the transition of the entire neutron star
mass into a lower regularity order nuclear material. There could be decay
transitions of loosing the outer 102-nd through 97-th partial layers,
radioactive decay type or even fission type transitions, and finally – from 96
shell series to 48 shell series and down to the series of six shells chemical
elements, eventually. All these processes are predicted to be similar to the
radioactive isotope decay of chemical elements. A recycling down to planets,
through all kind of stellar phases is predicted, or the neutron stars could
form systems on a spherical shell as well. Pairs of neutron stars already
reported, and we can see the galactic nuclei as millions of neutron stars on a close
packed spherical shell.

Furthermore: we can even calculate
the shortest possible periods of pulsars from the consideration of rotation of
the surface chains of collisions with the local speed of light. Indeed it will
be the possible theoretical shortest period and the actual periods must be
several (hundred) times longer, because we assume a limited to one plane
rotation, but the comparison to the observations may reveal some new
regularities.
The local speed of light is

_{ }using for the calculation of gravitational redshift the radius of the neutron star, and the period is calculated from the length of a circular path with R radius, divided by this local speed of light.
This
graph shows the range of the gravitational redshift, including the traditional
erratic so-called GR redshift for the normal radius and for the seen on the
Figure 1 flat feature. The yellow line is from GR and the blue line shows the
flat surface center area gravitational redshift. It could be viewed as prediction.
If the redshift radius relation would fall on the yellow line or values above
the z=0.6 would show-up it would falsify my representation; on the other hand
if a rotating neutron star turns the flats toward us time to time we should be
able to detect the variations in the redshift of characteristic spectral
features and compare with the predictions, here. A max. radius neutron star
would vary the redshift between 0.3 and 0.4, for example. (Indeed the Doppler from the rotation is
superimposed on gravitational redshift.)

We can represent on
the same basis the gravitational deformation of 'space-time frame’ – in reality
the increase of density of spontaneous collision events due to the direction
change of colliding elements in the mass-forming collisions. The general theory of relativity
predicted space-time frame deformation of the field can be represented as the
increase of density of spontaneous collisions.

_{ }(6)

A gravitational
pull force could be expressed between m

_{1}larger mass body and m_{2}smaller mass orbiting the larger at r distance with v_{2}tangential velocity body:_{ }(7)

Three large
mass neutron star samples (‘normal’, max mass and max radius) of changing
fundamental parameters in the space surrounding the neutron star, and pull force
for a small body with insignificant orbital velocity are shown on the following
graphs:

**Figure**Hiba! A könyvjelző nem létezik.

**. Graphs of ‘space-time frame’ deformations**

The decrease of pull force near the
surface of the large core nucleus/neutron star is indicative of the triggering
of supernovae. The distance of the closest to the core layer has to increase
due to the pull force decrease at the time when the core approaches its maximum
mass and the radius decreases with the increase of mass. It lowers the
collision density near the surface of the core causing the sudden decay to the
lower part of the Daisy-petal graph. It also must have a key role in organizing
the neutron star systems: when two neutron stars approach each other too close,
the pull force decreases, forcing them to find an equilibrium distance somewhat
further away from each other.

The Daisy-petal graph itself shows a
limitation of compact massive bodies mass at six solar masses. We have
observations of the galactic centers, indicating million times as large compact
massive bodies. However the pull force decrease for maximum mass neutron stars
shows a possibility of forming stabile neutron star systems. Very large,
million member compact neutron star systems can form as spherical systems of
neutron stars and show the properties of galactic centers, all of them
including the AGN’s as well.

**Conclusions**

It is shown
here that the return
to the ancient representation of colliding atoms correlate well with our
observations of neutron stars. The variations of the density of
spontaneous collisions in the deep space – due to the presence of massive
bodies – is shown to result the effects described by the General Relativity.
However, the conclusion follows that the supernovae events limit the
possibility of mass concentration in a single system at about six solar masses, and the
galactic nuclei observations explained as “super-massive black holes” must be
caused by systems of neutron stars instead. No black holes and there was no big
bang, but the Hubble redshift is a result of the conservation energy, consumed
by the background spontaneous collision field in exchange for conserving the collision
system by rearrangement of spontaneous collisions into regular systems. The brightest
evidence are the supernovae events.

**references**

[1] Return
to colliding atoms, Aladar Stolmar 2002 Physics Congress

__http://www.physical-congress.spb.ru/2002en.asp__
[2] Super-heavy
nuclei in the cores of planets and stars, Aladar Stolmar 2002 Physics Congress

__http://www.physical-congress.spb.ru/2002en.asp__